I taught 19th century Political and Social History. My research interests are Civil War and Reconstruction.
Ph.D., Harvard University (1962)
M.A., Harvard University (1954)
B.A., University of Michigan (1953)
- John P. Hale and the Politics of Abolition (1965)
- Ballots for Freedom: Antislavery Politics in the United States, 1837-1860 (1976)
- A House Divided: Sectionalism and Civil War, 1848-1865 (1988)